Johnson & Jonhson
Johnson & Johnson and its subsidiaries (the Company) have approximately 135,100 employees worldwide engaged in the research and development, manufacture and sale of a broad range of products in the health care field. Johnson & Johnson is a holding company, which has more than 260 operating companies conducting business in virtually all countries of the world. The Company’s primary focus is products related to human health and well-being. Johnson & Johnson was incorporated in the State of New Jersey in 1887.
The Executive Committee of Johnson & Johnson is the principal management group responsible for the strategic operations and allocation of the resources of the Company. This Committee oversees and coordinates the activities of the Company's three business segments: Consumer, Pharmaceutical and Medical Devices. Within the strategic parameters provided by the Committee, senior management groups at U.S. and international operating companies are each responsible for their own strategic plans and the day-to-day operations of those companies. Each subsidiary within the business segments is, with limited exceptions, managed by residents of the country where located.
Segments of Business
The Company is organized into three business segments: Consumer, Pharmaceutical and Medical Devices.
The business of Johnson & Johnson is conducted by more than 260 operating companies located in more than 60 countries, including the U.S., which sell products in virtually all countries throughout the world. The products made and sold in the international business include many of those described above under “– Segments of Business – Consumer,” “– Pharmaceutical” and “– Medical Devices.” However, the principal markets, products and methods of distribution in the international business vary with the country and the culture. The products sold in international business include those developed in the U.S. and by subsidiaries abroad.
Investments and activities in some countries outside the U.S. are subject to higher risks than comparable U.S. activities because the investment and commercial climate may be influenced by financial instability in international economies, restrictive economic policies and political and legal system uncertainties.
Raw materials essential to the Company's business are generally readily available from multiple sources. Where there are exceptions, the temporary unavailability of those raw materials would not likely have a material adverse effect on the financial results of the Company.
The Company's subsidiaries have made a practice of obtaining patent protection on their products and processes where possible. They own, or are licensed under, a significant number of patents in the U.S. and other countries relating to their products, product uses, formulations and manufacturing processes, which in the aggregate are believed to be of material importance to the Company in the operation of its businesses. The Company’s subsidiaries face patent challenges from third parties, including challenges seeking to manufacture and market generic and biosimilar versions of the Company's key pharmaceutical products prior to expiration of the applicable patents covering those products.
Sales of the Company’s 2nd largest product, STELARA® (ustekinumab), accounted for approximately 6.3% of the Company's total revenues for fiscal 2018. Accordingly, the patents related to this product are believed to be material to the Company.
There is one set of granted patents related specifically to STELARA®. This set of patents is owned by Janssen Biotech, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson. These patents are in force in the U.S. and many countries outside the United States. In the U.S., the latest projected expiration date for patents in this set is 2023 due to a patent term extension. In Europe, the latest projected expiration date for patents in this set is 2024 due to a Supplemental Patent Certificate (patent term extension). In most other countries, the latest projected expiration date is 2021.
In addition to competing in the immunology market with STELARA®, the Company is currently marketing SIMPONI® (golimumab) and SIMPONI ARIA® (golimumab), next generation immunology products with remaining patent lives of up to six years. The Company also markets REMICADE® (infliximab) in the immunology market which is the Company’s largest product. Patents on this product have expired and the Food and Drug Administration approved the first infliximab biosimilar for sale in the U.S. in 2016, and a number of such products have been launched since then.
The Company’s subsidiaries have made a practice of selling their products under trademarks and of obtaining protection for these trademarks by all available means. These trademarks are protected by registration in the U.S. and other countries where such products are marketed. The Company considers these trademarks in the aggregate to be of material importance in the operation of its businesses.
Worldwide sales do not reflect any significant degree of seasonality; however, spending has been heavier in the fourth quarter of each year than in other quarters. This reflects increased spending decisions, principally for advertising and research and development activity.
In all of their product lines, the Company's subsidiaries compete with companies both locally and globally. Competition exists in all product lines without regard to the number and size of the competing companies involved. Competition in research, both internally and externally sourced, involving the development and the improvement of new and existing products and processes, is particularly significant. The development of new and innovative products, as well as protecting the underlying intellectual property of the Company’s product portfolio, is important to the Company's success in all areas of its business. The competitive environment requires substantial investments in continuing research. In addition, the development and maintenance of customer demand for the Company’s consumer products involve significant expenditures for advertising and promotion.
The Company is subject to a variety of U.S. and international environmental protection measures. The Company believes that its operations comply in all material respects with applicable environmental laws and regulations. The Company’s compliance with these requirements did not change during the past year, and is not expected to have a material effect upon its capital expenditures, cash flows, earnings or competitive position.
The Company’s businesses are subject to varying degrees of governmental regulation in the countries in which operations are conducted, and the general trend is toward increasingly stringent regulation. In the U.S., the drug, device and cosmetic industries have long been subject to regulation by various federal and state agencies, primarily as to product safety, efficacy, manufacturing, advertising, labeling and safety reporting. The exercise of broad regulatory powers by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (the FDA) continues to result in increases in the amounts of testing and documentation required for FDA approval of new drugs and devices and a corresponding increase in the expense of product introduction. Similar trends are also evident in major markets outside of the U.S. The new medical device regulatory framework and the new privacy regulations in Europe are examples of such increased regulation.
The costs of human health care have been and continue to be a subject of study, investigation and regulation by governmental agencies and legislative bodies around the world. In the U.S., attention has been focused on drug prices and profits and programs that encourage doctors to write prescriptions for particular drugs, or to recommend, use or purchase particular medical devices. Payers have become a more potent force in the market place and increased attention is being paid to drug and medical device pricing, appropriate drug and medical device utilization and the quality and costs of health care generally.
U.S. government agencies continue to implement the extensive requirements of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (the ACA). These have both positive and negative impacts on the U.S. healthcare industry with much remaining uncertain as to how various provisions of the ACA, and potential modification or repeal of ACA provisions, will ultimately affect the industry.
The regulatory agencies under whose purview the Company operates have administrative powers that may subject it to actions such as product withdrawals, recalls, seizure of products and other civil and criminal sanctions. In some cases, the Company’s subsidiaries may deem it advisable to initiate product recalls.
In addition, business practices in the health care industry have come under increased scrutiny, particularly in the U.S., by government agencies and state attorneys general, and resulting investigations and prosecutions carry the risk of significant civil and criminal penalties.
Further, the Company relies on global supply chains, and production and distribution processes, that are complex, are subject to increasing regulatory requirements, and may be faced with unexpected changes such as those resulting from Brexit, that may affect sourcing, supply and pricing of materials used in the Company's products. These processes also are subject to lengthy regulatory approvals.
The Consumer segment includes a broad range of products used in the baby care, oral care, beauty, over-the-counter pharmaceutical, women’s health and wound care markets. Baby Care includes the JOHNSON’S® line of products. Oral Care includes the LISTERINE® product line. Major brands in Beauty include the AVEENO®; CLEAN & CLEAR®; DABAO™; JOHNSON’S® Adult; LE PETITE MARSEILLAIS®; NEUTROGENA® and OGX® product lines. Over-the-counter medicines include the broad family of TYLENOL® acetaminophen products; SUDAFED® cold, flu and allergy products; BENADRYL® and ZYRTEC® allergy products; MOTRIN® IB ibuprofen products; and the PEPCID® line of acid reflux products. Major brands in Women’s Health outside of North America are STAYFREE® and CAREFREE® sanitary pads and o.b.® tampon brands. Wound Care brands include the BAND-AID® Brand Adhesive Bandages and NEOSPORIN® First Aid product lines. These products are marketed to the general public and sold both to retail outlets and distributors throughout the world.
The Pharmaceutical segment is focused on six therapeutic areas: Immunology (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and psoriasis), Infectious Diseases and Vaccines (e.g., HIV/AIDS), Neuroscience (e.g., mood disorders, neurodegenerative disorders and schizophrenia), Oncology (e.g., prostate cancer and hematologic malignancies), Cardiovascular and Metabolism (e.g., thrombosis and diabetes) and Pulmonary Hypertension (e.g., Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension). Medicines in this segment are distributed directly to retailers, wholesalers, hospitals and health care professionals for prescription use. Key products in the Pharmaceutical segment include: REMICADE® (infliximab), a treatment for a number of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases; SIMPONI® (golimumab), a subcutaneous treatment for adults with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis, active psoriatic arthritis, active ankylosing spondylitis and moderately active to severely active ulcerative colitis; SIMPONI ARIA® (golimumab), an intravenous treatment for adults with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis, active psoriatic arthritis and active ankylosing spondylitis; STELARA® (ustekinumab), a treatment for adults and children with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis, for adults with active psoriatic arthritis, and for adults with moderately to severely active Crohn's disease; TREMFYA® (guselkumab), a treatment for adults with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis; EDURANT® (rilpivirine), INTELENCE® (etravirine), PREZISTA® (darunavir) and PREZCOBIX®/REZOLSTA® (darunavir/cobicistat), antiretroviral medicines for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) in combination with other antiretroviral products and SYMTUZA® ( darunavir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide), a once-daily single tablet regimen for the treatment of HIV ; CONCERTA® (methylphenidate HCl) extended-release tablets CII, a treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; INVEGA SUSTENNA®/XEPLION® (paliperidone palmitate), for the treatment of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder in adults; INVEGA TRINZA®/TREVICTA® (paliperidone palmitate), for the treatment of schizophrenia in patients after they have been adequately treated with INVEGA SUSTENNA® for at least four months; RISPERDAL CONSTA® (risperidone long-acting injection), for the treatment of schizophrenia and the maintenance treatment of Bipolar 1 Disorder in adults; ZYTIGA® (abiraterone acetate), a treatment for metastatic castrationresistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and metastatic high-risk castration-sensitive prostate cancer; IMBRUVICA® (ibrutinib), a treatment for certain B-cell malignancies, or blood cancers, chronic graft versus host disease and Waldenström's Macroglobulinemia; DARZALEX® (daratumumab), a treatment for relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma; VELCADE® (bortezomib), a treatment for multiple myeloma mantle cell lymphoma; PROCRIT®/EPREX® (epoetin alfa), a treatment for chemotherapy-induced anemia and patients with chronic kidney disease; XARELTO® (rivaroxaban), an oral anticoagulant for the prevention of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), which may lead to pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients undergoing hip or knee replacement surgery, to reduce the risk of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, and for the treatment and reduction of risk of recurrence of DVT and PE; INVOKANA® (canagliflozin), for the treatment of adults with type 2 diabetes; INVOKAMET®/VOKANAMET® (canagliflozin/metformin HCl), a combination therapy of fixed doses of canagliflozin and metformin hydrochloride for the treatment of adults with type 2 diabetes; and INVOKAMET® XR (canagliflozin/metformin hydrochloride extended-release), a once-daily, fixed-dose combination therapy of canagliflozin and metformin hydrochloride extended-release, for the treatment of adults with type 2 diabetes; OPSUMIT® (macitentan) as monotherapy or in combination, indicated for the long-term treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH); UPTRAVI® (selexipag), the only approved oral, selective IP receptor agonist targeting a prostacyclin pathway in PAH. Many of these medicines were developed in collaboration with strategic partners or are licensed from other companies and maintain active lifecycle development programs.
The Medical Devices segment includes a broad range of products used in the orthopaedic, surgery, interventional solutions (cardiovascular and neurovascular), diabetes care (divested in the fiscal fourth quarter of 2018) and eye health fields. These products are distributed to wholesalers, hospitals and retailers, and used principally in the professional fields by physicians, nurses, hospitals, eye care professionals and clinics. They include orthopaedic products; general surgery, biosurgical, endomechanical and energy products; electrophysiology products to treat cardiovascular disease; sterilization and disinfection products to reduce surgical infection; and vision products such as disposable contact lenses and ophthalmic products related to cataract and laser refractive surgery.